194001209 - PANELS AND FRAMES - INTRODUCTION
Vehicle identification dataThe vehicle is equipped with the following identification plates:1. V.I.N. Plate2. Bodyshell identification number plate (only valid for factory)3. Bodyshell marking.4. Body paintwork identification plate.
Vehicle towing pointsThe vehicle has two threaded seats, one at the front and one at the back to which the special tow hook is fitted.The tow hook, which is supplied with the vehicle, is housed in the tool box, under the carpet in the luggage compartment.
|When towing the vehicle, it is compulsory to resepct specific highway code regulations relating to the tow hook and procedures for towing on the road. Clean the threaded seat carefully before tightening the hook. Before towing, make sure that the tow hook is fully tightened. Turn the ignition key to the ON position and then OFF and DO NOT EXTRACT IT ! If the key is extracted the steering lock will come on automatically and it will be impossible to steer the wheels. With the engine switched off the brake servo and the power steering are not working so greater effort is required on both the brake pedal and the steering wheel.|
Vehicle lifting pointsTo raise the vehicle using lift arms or a workshop lift, arrange the ends of the arms or the lift in the areas shown in the diagram only.
|Before raising the vehicle using portable lifts, working only at the points shown in the diagram, lock the wheels by placing chocks in front of (behind) the front (rear) wheels. After having raised the vehicle, support it using safety stands.|
WarningsWork carefully on the fittings and use the recommended tools correctly to prevent damage.
PrecautionsBefore working on the electrical system (connectors, electrical components, wiring, etc.) turn the ignition key OFF and DISCONNECT THE BATTERY.Whenever the battery terminals are reconnected, proceed as follows:- initialise front and rear windows;- initialise the sun roof;- initialise the sun roof blind;- reset the time and date on the instrument panel;- enter the safety code on the radio (if present);- enter the safety code on the navigation system (if present);
General safety instructionsThe activities connected with the bodywork repair operations involve the use of specialist equipment as well as handling chemical products which must be done in accordance with the supplier''s recommendations.Special attention should therefore be paid to:- The correct use of materials, instruments and equipment: before carrying out any operation, read the instruction manual very carefully and and follow the directions and recommended safety regulations.- Specially designated work areas must be equipped with a ventilation system that meets standards as far as air exchange, the filtration of harmful substances (solvents) and keeping down dust levels are concerned.- Dangerous substances that have to be used must be handled following the supplier''s instructions and recommendations.- The collection and disposal of waste must be carried out in accordance with the laws in force.Whilst working with and handling dangerous substances, the appropriate accident prevention measures must be taken (wearing protective clothing, masks, gloves, goggles, etc.).
Vehicle repair operating cyclesThe vehicle repair operating cycles usually consist of the following stages:- checking vehicle measurements;- cutting/removing damaged elements and preparing the bodyshell for welding;- welding replacement parts;- preparation for painting;- painting;- restoring anti-corrosion conditions;- sound insulation, sealants.Checking and restoring vehicle measurementsThis is the first stage of the repair operation during which the distortion suffered by the bodyshell is measured and evaluated and the elements involved are identified.The first actual repair operation is also carried out during this stage: pulling the bodyshell to restore the distances before cutting and removing the damaged elements.Pulling the bodyshellPulling the bodyshell, to restore the distances, is carried out on the alignment benches where it is possible to secure the bodyshell using vices and mountings to be fitted in accordance with the specific instructions for each vehicle that come with the bench.Templates, positioned in the recommended places, are used to check the bodyshell measurements either using the measurements given by the manufacturer of the template for each model or, alternatively, those for the vehicle given in the "Description and Operation" section.Example of a possible alignment bench configuration.
General repair instructions
|The battery leads must be disconnected before carrying out any operation on the vehicle.|
|Removing the damaged elements is the repair stage during which the potentially most dangerous equipment is used. Before carrying out any operation, read the instruction manual carefully and the safety instructions and warnings given by the manufacturer together with the equipment and follow all safety precautions most stringently.|
Circular sawA circular saw is used in cases which require high precision cutting; for example, the panel in a box section to replaced superimposed on the panel that should not be damaged. By adjusting the speed and the number of oscillations it is possible to achieved the required precision according to the usage conditions. The high safety level for this instrument means that it is advisable to use it as an alternative to other types of saws.Example of a circular vibrating saw.
Power chiselPower chisels are used to deatch parts of panels and are recommended:- when it is not possible to use a power saw, milling machine or drill; for example, when there is another panel behind the one to be cut which should not be damaged;- when welded panels can be separated directly, inserting the chisel between the two panels along the join edge in order not to leave edges to be removed later on.The different fittings that it comes with increase its versatility.Example of the use of a power chisel.
Plasma cutting systemThis cutting system, produced through the combined effect of an electric arc and gas or a gas mixture, is used if very large panels have to be removed. Depending on the thickness of the panel and the depth of the cut, the value of the current and flow of gas can be adjusted in accordance with the instruction manual supplied by the Manufacturer.
|The use of plasma cutting systems requires use of an extraction system to remove the harmful gases and fumes.|
Example of the correct use of a milling machine.
1. Panel to be detached.2. Box section preventing the use of the cutter.Milling machineA milling machine for removing spot welds is used after the panel to be replaced has been cut to allow the removal of the metall offcuts remaining on the edges of the bodyshell.The milling machine works on the panel cutting it as far as the panel underneath and insulating the spot weld.After removing all the spot welds the piece cut off can be removed using pliers.- A cutting speed of around 1000 rpm should be used to facilitate the operation.- Adjust the cutting depth using the special screw.Example of the use of a milling machine.
|Do not drill matching components. If holes have been made accidentally, close them by (MIG) welding. The presence of holes decreases the resistance of the component involved and can also give rise to penetration by water and corrosive agents.|
Welding replacement parts
|If welding operations or work has to be carried out which could produce flames near the fuel system components illustrated in the diagram or other flammable parts of the vehicle, the parts concerned should be removed from the vehicle and the free connections of the pipes sealed if the connectors are disconnected. Disconnect the electronic control unit (I.E., ABS, Air Bag, Air conditioning, Alarm, etc.) which could be damaged during the work.|
|Before welding, apply electro-galvanizing protective to the edges of the join to protect the box sections from corrosion.|
A. Electro-weldable galvanizing protectiveB. Correct welding sequenceC. Incorrect welding sequenceD. Dimension of the electrodeTable of reference values for carrying out spot welding.
A. Table for determining the distance of the spot welds from the edges of the panels according to their thickness.B. Table of reference values for the correct spacing of spot welds depending on the thickness of the panel.
|Do not weld corner shaped surfaces. If welds are made on this type of surface it produces a concentration of tension that causes it to break.|
A. Area where welding should not be carried out.Seam (mig) weldingMIG welding should be used for parts where spot welding cannot be used. When seam (MIG) welding, check:- the speed of the wire- the correct execution of the seam welding beads (alternation of welding sections)In this welding system the electrode (an automatic advance continuous wire) is protected by an atmosphere of inert gases (where the initials MIG come from - Metal Inert Gas).The continuous advance of the wire (which constitutes both the el
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